Music


last update: 16 October 2020

In 2000 the worldwide record industry was worth $28 billion, whereas the global video games market was worth 'only' $36 billion. But what's the situation in 2020?

All figures Pre-Covid

By 2010 the global
recorded music market had retracted by about 50%, but in 2019 the total revenues grew by 8.2% back to $20.2 billion, with streaming services now representing 56% of global revenues (that's with 341 million paying subscribers). In 2019 the US revenues from streaming music accounted for 80% of all recorded music revenues (physical distribution only accounted for 10%, and digital downloads only 8%).

On the other hand the 2020 global
video games market is now worth about $160 billion, and grew last year at over 9%. Of that $77 billion is mobile gaming on phones and tablets, whereas consoles represented $45 billion and PC-based gaming $37 billion. There are 2.7 billion game players, with 1.5 billion players in the Asia-Pacific region.

The
live music industry was worth only $1.7 billion in 2000, but had grown to $7 billion by 2015, and was expected to exceed $25 billion by 2023 (it was already $10 billion in the US in 2018). As an example, the 50-cities 2018 tour of Ed Sheeran aggregated an audiences of close to 5 million people and pulled in $432 million. Major DJ's on "electronic dance music" events can earn $50 million annually, and Ibiza noted that for 2019 clubbers contributed $500 million to the islands economy.

The
classical music market was worth about $384 million in 2018, however sales stagnated. On the bright side classical music streaming was up 46% and worth over $140 million. Around 17% of early boomers tended to go to live classical concerts, etc. in their 40's but stop going after 55+. Both later boomers and Gen Xers are less interested in classical music in general, including live performances. Only about 7% of Millennials express an interest in classical music.

Introduction


Music is a really difficult area. In part because it is such a complex subject, and in part because I want to mix it with my own personal preferences in music. My tastes are probably typical of anyone who was a teenager in the UK in the 1960's.

So I want to learn a bit more about
music in all its forms (with a focus on quiz-show trivia), and at the same time I want to relive my likes, and dislikes, etc. (without being overly nostalgic).

As usual Wikipedia is my starting point, and immediately we have our first set of high-level topics.

Music as an art form, which includes a mix of sounds and silences, including pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, metre, and articulation), dynamics (sound intensity, loudness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (sometimes called colour).
Supporting music as an art form is
music theory, which starts with the basic elements of music (such as pitch, scales and modes, consonance and dissonance, rhythm, melody, chord, harmony, timbre, dynamics, articulation, texture, duration, and formal structure), and extends into a very varied academic discipline. Music theory also involves the evolution of music notation and includes musicology. Music theory can be a practical discipline since it also involves the methods and concepts that composers and musicians use in creating music.
The
language of music is based upon sounds and articulation, as distinguished by pitches or rhythms. As a reminder tonal languages (spoken) use pitch to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning to help distinguish words. And there are also a number of whistled languages.
The
formal structure is the structure of a musical composition or performance, and includes the way musical units such as rhythm, melody, harmony are used repeatedly, or with variations, to create musical sections, the arrangement of the instruments, and in some cases the orchestration.

In the minds of many,
music as a cultural activity is all about popular music based on commercial aesthetics, produced by a music industry and primarily mass distributed. This is a world of production and distribution on a global scale, sourcing material, labour, services, etc. across borders with little or no attachment to particular places. For many this process has eroded distinct local identities, creating a homogenised global 'airport' culture. Others think that the process has created hybrid or 'third space' cultures, and some see music as a single global culture that now pays little attention to nationality. Another perspective is that of traditional and folk music rooted in people's heritage and identity, but which now can access global production, marketing and distribution networks.
Perhaps a better way to look at things is to replace "
music as culture" with a focus on the people involved, i.e. "music is their culture". It means those people who write songs, tunes, symphonies,…, and those who play instruments as soloists, in groups, in orchestras, etc. There are people who record music in studios or in bedrooms, and there are those who perform live in concerts or even in the street. There are people who use music as part of their performance, e.g. musical theatre, opera, dance/ballet, rock concerts, disc jockeys, etc. Music can be an important part in religious, secular or "rite of passage" ceremonies (graduation, marriage,…). And there are those who use music to create social activities (e.g. dancing, karaoke, community choir,…). Accepting that "music is their culture" means that music can become the culture also of the listener, and even a direct expression of "who they are". So music preferences are expressions of personal and cultural values, and sharing music preferences can create strong social bonds between people and communities.

Music can be broken down into a large number of styles and types, i.e. different music genres. Wikipedia offers a starting division between art music, popular music, sacred music and traditional and folk music. However, Wikipedia also has a list of popular music genres, which opens up a much wider variety of types of music.
Art music exists in many parts of the world, but in Europe it's usually just called "classical music" and it can be broken down in to several periods, e.g. Renaissance, Romantic, Modernism, etc.
Popular music is a generic name for whatever people liked at the time, so it is not traditional and folk music (which was/is often not widely distributed) nor pop music (which is just one type of popular music).
Sacred music includes all types of music from Christian, Islamic, Jewish, Hindu, …, traditions. Many types of sacred music have numerous sub-genres, e.g. Christian Music can be liturgy-type music, gospel, Gregorian chant, spirituals, hymns, carols, organ music, choir music, etc.
Military music includes field music with drums, then the later brass and woodwind military bands, and not forgetting mounted bands. There are also marching bands who are often heard playing national anthems and patriotic songs.
Traditional and folk music is yet another sector which is ill-defined. Most indigenous music is traditional and folk music, as are work songs, sea shanties, oral traditions, nursery rhymes, etc.
World music seems to encompass all types of folk music that does not have Western European origins.
And finally there is
music for films, video games, music halls, musical theatre, ballroom dancing, etc., and all the 'background music' that is hidden away in our daily lives.

Music includes a variety of vocal techniques (from singing to rapping) and the use of a vast range of musical instruments. Wikipedia has a list of musical instruments, which includes 335 different percussion instruments, 149 different woodwind instruments, 62 types of brass instruments, 394 string instruments, and 35 electronic instruments. Some sources suggest that there are over 1,500 different types of musical instruments.

Music is also an industry, a market and commercial or business sector, and includes:-
People who create new songs and musical pieces (such as songwriters, lyricists and composers)
People who perform
music (which include orchestras, jazz band and rock band musicians, singers, conductors, bandleaders, all forms of concerts, etc.)
People who
record music (record producer and audio engineer) and run music libraries
People who sell
recordings, sheet music, and scores to customers (e.g. music publishers, record labels, etc.).
People who deal with
copyright, music licensing, performing rights, and those who work in performance rights organisations (including royalty payments,…)
People who are
music critics, music journalists, and music scholars.
People who assist
singers and musicians with their music careers (talent managers, artists and repertoire managers, business managers, entertainment lawyers), and music educators and teachers, including those who provide music lessons.

Professional musicians are employed by a range of institutions and organisations, including armed forces (in marching bands, concert bands and popular music groups), religious organisations, symphony orchestras, broadcasting or film production companies, and music schools. Professional musicians also sometimes work as freelancers or session musicians.

And of course there are the amateurs who perform in a variety of ensembles such as community
concert bands and community orchestras, and not forgetting the whole world that comes under home recording and bedroom production.

A distinction is often made between
music performed for a live audience and music that is performed in a studio so that it can be recorded and distributed through the music retail system or the broadcasting system.

Music is the motivation behind those who make and sell
sheet music, musical instruments, as well as music creation software, recording studio hardware and production software (i.e. everyone and everything involved with digital music technology).

And not forgetting those who run
nightclubs, disco clubs and organise concert tours and live music performances (including sound engineers, booking agents, promoters, music venues, road crew).

Music is associated with a variety of 'technologies' (in addition to instruments), including musical notation, sheet music, the phonograph, turntables, CD players, loudspeakers, music videos, broadcast audio or video music content (satellite, Internet radio stations, broadcast radio and TV stations), online music stores, streaming services,…

The music 'ecosystem'


In the above description we have only scratched the surface of the world of
music. Below we have a slightly expanded view…

The Music Business

And you will see that the key question around music genres is not even treated in the above. But below we have a small extract of a different type of visualisation based upon artists, but for a limited range of music types (e.g. green is pop, red for rock, and blue for hip-hop and rap). You can actually look for specific names of artists here.

Musician Network


A different approach is seen below where strongly related
Youtube music videos have been clustered together in a 50-node map. As you can see the thicker the line the stronger the relationship between different music genres.

Music Genres

Even with only 50 music genres used, there are already some that we might not be totally familiar with, e.g. grime, trap, or glee (which can be music linked to the US TV series which makes reference to 19th century US glee club music, or the unlikely alternative, earlier 17th century English glee music).

An entirely different way to view
music genres is to study the genealogy of one or other musical trend. For example, musicmap tries to map popular music genres for 1870-2016.

musicmap

Above we can see an example of how it relates classical music to ragtime, and on to boogie-woogie, and how folk blues derives from spirituals and work songs, etc.


Naturally there are also a multitude of different ways, more or less traditional, to show the relationship between specific musicians and music genres.

Heavy Metal

Above we have a simple 'tree' structure that manages to still surprise with categories such as Christian Metal and Grindcore.


The final example is Every Noise at Once, with what they call the musical genre-space. They have 5,002 genre-shaped distinctions (as of 22/10/2020), and each with an example sound clip to it.

Every Noise at Once

And if you click through in the '>>' you also have the map of the artists, and with example sound clips. The below example is just a small part of "classic uk pop" (of which I actually recognise 24 of them).

Classic UK Pop


Basic definitions


Just running though the above introduction it is evident that the field of music is going to be inundated with specialist words and expressions, with detailed terminology, and with highly esoteric concepts. So the below short list of basic definitions is just scratching the surface.

In fact according to Wikipedia it is not easy to
define the term music, but I can live with "the art of combining vocal or instrumental sounds (or both) to produce beauty of form, harmony, and expression of emotion". Some experts suggest "organised noises", whilst others suggest that this definition should only be for noises that were not disturbing or unpleasant.

At least according to Wikipedia "
there is little dispute about the principle constituent elements of music", and pitch, duration, loudness, timbre, sonic texture and spatial location are mentioned. It looks as if the idea is that they are parameters that can be composed with, so let's start with those elements.


Auditory attributes of musical tones (a steady periodic sound) include:-

Musical tones, as shown below left, can be 'pure' (i.e. a sinusoidal waveform), or a 'complex' mix of two or more pure tones.

Waveforms Pitch

Pitch, as shown above right, is a quality that makes a sound 'higher' or 'lower', so its a frequency-based scale.

Duration is the just the time a note or phrase or composition lasts.

Intensity or loudness is the subjective impression of sound pressure. Sound intensity is related to the amplitude of the waveforms we can see above, and intensity drops off according to the inverse-square law. Dynamics appears to be associated with the variation of loudness between notes or phrases.

Timbre is often called tone quality or tone colour, and it's what defines the difference between different musical instruments (including also a singers voice), e.g. the same note played on a tuning fork, clarinet, or trumpet sound are very different.

Timbres Instruments

However timbre is not just a waveform measured in a laboratory. In fact timbre is used by us to recognise and classify music, voice and ambient noise, but more importantly for music it provides critical acoustic cues for conveying musical emotion. Adjectives are used a lot to try to describe timbre perception for sounds having the same loudness and pitch, e.g. often used examples include comparing loudness and 'sharpness', degrees of roughness (as a measure of texture), or 'richness', all associated with more complex waveforms. This can be highly subjective because people can use different terms (rich, deep, full, warm, mellow,…) to mean more or less the same thing. One often used comparison is 'bright-dark', in part because they offer quite clear opposites and because 'bright' correlates well with sharp and pure, whilst 'dark' correlates well with vigorous and coarse. It also appears to me that it's related to the 'chiaroscuro' of the Italian 'bel canto' where the aim to create a sound that is 'bright' but full of 'depth' (so for a singer the aim is a bright ringing 'head voice' sound mixed with a darker 'chest voice' resonance).

Dark-Bright

Above we have a cropped diagram just focusing on some Western orchestral instruments and with 'dark' (left) and 'bright' (right) on a scale from -2 (dark) to +4 (bright). Some experts might consider vigorous as being a better adjective than dark.

A persons
perception of their acoustic environment (soundscape) is traditionally said to depend upon pitch, duration, loudness, timbre, and sonic texture and spatial location. These elements, possibly with others, are often considered as parameters that a composer can manipulate more or less independently one from the other. As such they are sometimes presented as the "raw materials" of music.


Timbre looked like a quite complex concept, but sonic texture looks to be even more complex, in that it appears to be defined as how the tempo, melodic and harmonic elements combine in a composition, determining the overall quality of the sound. The problem is that there is not a single, consistent definition of quality.

Certainly from one perspective, sound quality is all about the accuracy, fidelity, or intelligibility of an audio output from a variety of devices such as a reordered master, loudspeaker, or even the acoustics of an entire room. The accuracy of a sound is also dependent upon musical technique, where the musician is able to produce the precise musical effects desired. Fidelity is often described in terms of high fidelity referring to the high-quality reproduction of sound. Clearly, from a recording of a sound it is possible to define and isolate a set of sound descriptors (features or metrics), e.g. pitch, duration, loudness, and timbre. Equally it is possible to use listening tests to determine a quality judgment, and these can be connected with the sound descriptors. This approach is sometimes called 'objectivation', and relates timbre descriptors with quality judgements. This works well in making a judgement on the acceptability of the sound of a domestic appliance or a car, but equally it can be used to characterise and judge the timbre of a musical instrument. The technique is all the better when a reference or 'gold' sample is available.
However, the above approach is not so easy to apply to the evaluation of the 'quality' of a musical recording, where both objective and subjective considerations apply. In fact there are still different opinions about how to best evaluate the quality of a
loudspeaker, for example, listener preferences are different in different parts of the world. Very quickly people introduce subjective parameters such as 'spatial impression' or 'tonality'. On the other hand, experts are usually able to identify both the source of a recording and the recording medium used, just by listening to the music. What researcher have found is that there is a significant relationship between the spectral features and the emotional features of a musical piece, thus aesthetic considerations do help determine the sense of overall 'quality'. It would appear that there are three key considerations, firstly the emotional intent of the artists, secondly the timbre of the instruments, and thirdly the choice of tempo. And not surprisingly, when people like the music, they think of it as having a higher quality. They also think that music that makes them happy is of a higher quality than music that makes them sad or angry.
Experts have found that higher quality is associated with higher
low-frequency energy, relating to a wider bandwidth. A harsh sound was highly correlated to the idea of a lower quality. Also a reduced dynamic range was considered an indication of poorer quality. Interestingly a slower tempo was associated with higher quality, possible due to higher production values being used for slower music. Also a 'lower event density' was associated with higher quality, i.e. more space between notes so detail in the instrumentation can be heard and a sense of spaciousness is enhanced. Often a higher tempo is associated with a harsher sound, and perceived as lower quality. Not surprisingly, stereo was consider higher quality that a monaural presentation.

There exists an acoustic fingerprint which is a condensed digital summary, a fingerprint, deterministically generated from an audio signal, that can be used to identify an audio sample or quickly locate similar items in an audio database (i.e. to identify songs, melodies, tunes, etc.).

Tempo is the speed or pace of a given piece of music. A piece of music will often indicate the tempo in beats per minute (bpm), although in classical music Italian words are often used (allegro, andante, adagio, presto, or even allegro agitato). In this sense these are mood markings, and the Wikipedia article lists the Italian basic Tempo markings. Beat in music is the basic unit of time, and is often thought of as the rhythm listeners would tap their toes to. In popular music the term 'groove' is often used for the beat, indicating a propulsive sense of jazz-style 'swing'.
The
tempo might be defined by the type of popular music, and it is sufficient to simply note Bossa nova or 'fast rock'. In classical music the conductor provides the tempo, whereas in popular music it's often provided by the drummer.
Tempo is separate from articulation and meter, but together they contribute to the overall texture. Musical articulation is analogous to the articulation of speech, in the sense that it determines how a single note sounds, i.e. the length of sound and the shape of its attack and decay (speed of rise and fall of the note). Meter is the regular recurring patterns in the music.

The reality is that
beat, tempo, meter and even rhythm, all indicate the pace of a piece of music, but all mean slightly different things. The beat is the basic unit of time, and it's the way musicians count the notes and stay in sync with each other. Without a beat the musicians don't know how fast to play (that is why sometimes a musician will give the beat by saying "1-2-3-4").

Below we have a short extract using a 4/4 time signature, meaning 4 beats in each measure. Beats are made up of notes of different durations, e.g. in the piece below we have whole notes, half notes, and quarter notes.

Beat

The first note is a half note (it has a hollow circle), which is worth two beats. In the first measure the half note is followed by two quarter notes (circle filled in), and quarter notes are worth one beat. We can also see a whole note (a hollow circle with no line), which is worth 4 quarter note beats. In the first measure, the 4 quarter notes equal 4 beats, and the other measures each are equal to 4 beats.
The
measure is the vertical bar, which segments time corresponding to a specific number of beats (in this case 4 beats between each bar). Dividing music into bars provides a regular reference point because each measure is played as a batch. With the time signature 4/4, the top figure is the number of beats per bar, and the bottom number is the note value of the beat (in this example a beat has a quarter note value).
Meter is the number of individual beats you would count out if you were tapping your foot to the beat. So in the above example the meter is a 4-count, i.e. you would count out 1-2-3-4 beats to a bar (but you can also have a 3-count meter or a 2-count meter, and more rarely a 5-count meter, etc.). It is perfectly possible to have two different meters, one for the lyrics and one for the underlying structure (or beat) of the song.
But what about
rhythm? These are closely related terms, however meter is just one component of rhythm. You start with the pulse of repeating beats in the meter, and that can provide the rhythm that listeners tap their toes to, or clap along with (if you hum along, that would be the melody). However a composer or performer create additional patterns by playing with the meter, going in and out of time (i.e. expressive timing). As a simple example, typically both reggae and folk music use a 4-count meter, but reggae emphasises 1-2-3-4 and folk music emphasises 1-2-3-4. So two quite different rhythms using the same meter.
The definitions are quite subtile, so a
pulse is one of a series of regularly recurring ticks of a metronome or watch, marking off equal units of time. You need a pulse for a meter to exist, and the meter is the most basic feature of rhythm, which is the most basic feature of music. Without the meter you would not be able to predict the flow of the beat, and so you would not be able to tap your foot, or dance, or even sing-along. Many people say that dancers have rhythm but move with the beat. Composers work to make the rhythm sound interesting, and they can drop some notes and subdivided others into smaller notes. They can use down-beats and up-beats, which are respectively, the first beat of a bar and the last beat of the previous bar (you usually clap on the down-beats). Properly used they can provide a forward energy and sense of direction to the music.

and a
meter is a measure of the number of pulses that occur between more or less regular recurring accents. Accents emphasis or stress a particular note or group of notes (contributing to articulation), and make a note louder, or with a higher pitch, or longer in duration. For a meter to exist you need accents, and when the pulses are counted between the accents they are referred to as beats.






https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elements_of_music
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical_expression
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timbre

https://musicaldictionary.com/beat/
https://musicaldictionary.com/?s=pulse
https://musicaldictionary.com/meter/
https://musicaldictionary.com/types-of-beats/











There is something called
note value which is the rhythmic duration of a note, and it is defined by the texture/shape of the notehead, the presence of absence of a stem, and the presence or absence of beams/flags.


Arousal (intensity of emotional response) and "valence" (positive or negative experiences)






melody
harmony



Spatial location

Spatial location
Spatial location (see: Sound localization) represents the cognitive placement of a sound in an environmental context; including the placement of a sound on both the horizontal and vertical plane, the distance from the sound source and the characteristics of the sonic environment.[31][32] In a thick texture, it is possible to identify multiple sound sources using a combination of spatial location and timbre identification. This is the main reason why we can pick the sound of an oboe in an orchestra and the words of a single person at a cocktail party.






as an art form, which includes a mix of sounds and silences, including pitch (which governs melody and harmony), rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo, metre, and articulation), dynamics (sound intensity, loudness), and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture (sometimes called colour).
Supporting music as an art form is
music theory, which starts with the basic elements of music (such as pitch, scales and modes, consonance and dissonance, rhythm, melody, chord, harmony, timbre, dynamics, articulation, texture, duration, and formal structure), and extends into a very varied academic discipline. Music theory also involves the evolution of music notation and includes musicology. Music theory can be a practical discipline since it also involves the methods and concepts that composers and musicians use in creating music.
The
language of music is based upon sounds and articulation, as distinguished by pitches or rhythms. As a reminder tonal languages (spoken) use pitch to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning to help distinguish words. And there are also a number of whistled languages.
The
formal structure is the structure of a musical composition or performance, and includes the way musical units such as rhythm, melody, harmony are used repeatedly, or with variations, to create musical sections, the arrangement of the instruments, and in some cases the orchestration.




If you are studying music in KS3 then one of the topics you'll learn about is the fundamental elements that make up music. There are seven of these: Pitch, Duration, Dynamics, Tempo, Timbre, Texture and Structure.
Pitch is the degree of highness or lowness of a tone.
Duration is the length of time a note lasts for.
Dynamics express how loud or quiet the music should be played.
Tempo refers to the speed at which a piece of music should be played.
Timbre is the characteristic quality of a sound (not counting pitch and loudness) which make it unique.
Texture is how the melody, rhythm and harmony are combined to create the overall quality of a piece of music.
Structure is the form and arrangement of a piece of music