Ancient History Collections

 

Ancient History (this is from the beginning of recorded human history to just before the Early Middle Ages or Postclassical Era, e.g. let’s say including the Viking Age and through to the Battle of Hastings in 1066 AD. So we would include Mesopotamia (6000 BC to 2000 BC), Indus Valley (3300 BC to 1700 BC), Ancient & Classical Egypt (3100 BC to 629 AD), Babylonia (2300 BC to 619 BC), Mesoamerica (2000 BC to 300 BC), Phoenicia (1550 BC to 300 BC), Ancient China (1300 BC to 214 BC), the Mongols (1300 BC to 1125 AD), the “Old World” with Ancient Greece (1200 BC to about 500 AD), Ancient Rome (753 BC to 476 AD) and Late Antiquity (100 AD to 800 AD), and the Middle Kingdoms of India (300 BC to 1300 AD). This period would also be expected to include the Germanic peoples, Anglo-Saxons, Celts, and Norse peoples.




The NY-based Institute for the Study of the Ancient World publishes the ISAW papers, which are made freely available. I’m not sure of the exact extent of this collection of documents, but I noted that they tend to be highly academic and touch on subjects such as Greek Astrology in Babylonian Tablets and Ptolemaic Numismatics. It also has a online resources page.

In looking through the ISAW papers I stumbled on the Ancient World Digital Library which basically is a collection of more than 200 digitised texts about the ancient world. For example I could download Die Aegytischen Denkmäler by J.Lievlein dated 1874. I also saw a mention of 3,000 images in the Ancient World Image Bank as a Flickr group. The site is home to more than 11,000 images of ancient world sites and artifacts. And there is the Website Ancient Worlds with sections on Rome, Hellas, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Celtia, Germania, the Orient, Americas, and the New Worlds. This site is home to more than 5,000 articles as well as very active discussion groups. 

Another site which continues to impress me is The Ancient World Online, which is just what it says, a blog about the ancient world. But what a blog! It is very professional, has a massive list of open source journals on ancient studies, and is a constant source of interesting information and comments about the ancient world. Topics treated during one of my recent visits were the Ancient World Mapping Center and the Online Etymological Dictionary of Akkadian.

And on top of all these wonderful resources you have also the Ancient History Encyclopedia which is yet another free resource, but this time made up of articles provided by many different authors. To date it is home to more than 400 articles, a collection of videos and pictures, and an area for maps of the ancient world.

Livius has more than 3,500 Webpages on ancient history (Greece, Roman empire, Anatolia, Persia, Egypt, Germania Inferior, Levant, and Babylonia), and for example there are also more than 400 articles on the Roman Empire and more than 130 articles on Persia.

Art History Resources provides a massive set of links covering the Ancient Near East, Ancient Egyptian Art, Ancient Greek Art, Etruscan Art, Ancient Roman Art, Early Christian Art, Byzantine Art, Islamic Art, and Art in Early Europe. The WWW Sites Relating to the Ancient Mediterranean has sets of links covering everything from ancient document collections, Egypt, Greece, Rome, the Dead Sea Scrolls, and the New Testament. Classics at Oxford has a useful list of Web resources, including the meta-indexes and links to Websites on literary and cultural theory and linguistics. Essentially these three sites point collectively to several hundred specialist Websites concerning the ancient world, from the  Mesopotamians through to Early Christian Europe. If you are not careful you could spend the rest of your life hacking through all of them, and never actually find the one thing your looking for. Good luck!


FastiOnline is a database of all archaeological excavations since the year 2000. It has a map interface, showing that it covers Italy, Spain, Morocco, Croatia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Moldova and the Ukraine. In addition the peer-reviewed articles from the journal of FOLD&R Italy (Fasti On Line Documents & Research) are available as pdf files.


Yale University has a series of online collections, including one on ancient art with more than 13,000 objects from Egypt, Greece, Etruria and Rome, and in particular of excavations in Dura-Europos and Gerasa. They also have a collection of 3,000 artifacts from ancient South American civilisations, e.g. Maya and Inca.


You can’t go wrong with the different BBC introductions to ancient history, for example concerning the Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, Vikings, Anglo-Saxons, and Ancient India (and don’t forget their “Civilisations”). The Internet Ancient History Sourcebook is certainly worth a visit, and in particular the section on Mesopotamia (Sumeria, Akkadia, Babylonia, and Assyria). And History for Kids (part of Kidipede?) is quite a convincing set of Webpages on ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, and China.


The Cuneiform Initiative, a collaboration between the University of California, Oxford, and Max Planck, makes cuneiform text available. They claim to have catalogued 290,000 examples from a world total that may exceed 500,000 exemplars. There is also a page that contains links to another 35 Websites that relate to cuneiform, and Mesopotamia, Akkad, Sumer, Assyria, Babylonian and Hittites texts. Oracc is also working to build a complete corpus of cuneiform. The Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature has nearly 400 literary Sumerian compositions with English translations (the Website has not been updated since 2006 when the funding stopped, but it is still there and it all works).

If you want to know more about Mesopotamia, check out the specific Website of the British Museum, the Website ETANA for the ancient Near East archives, the link page for Ancient Mesopotamia, the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook on Mesopotamia, and the Mesopotamia Galley of the BBC.

The University of Chicago has a site entitled “Ancient Near East and the Mediterranean World”, which points to a collection of research material published between 1850 and 1950, e.g. digitised document. An example is Grammaire Eygptienne published in 1836. There is also a virtual visit of the universities Oriental Institute Museum (this is just one of the many exhibits in the museum). 

The British Museum has placed in their digital archive more than 15,000 colourful Persian manuscripts. This is in fact just one example of what can be found in their collection of digitised manuscripts, which includes the Harley Golden Gospels, Beowulf, the Silos Apocalypse, Leonardo da Vinci’s Notebook, the Petit Livre d’Amour and the Golf Book. In addition they also have a specific Website dedicated to illuminated manuscripts, which includes a virtual exhibition on Royal Manuscripts (there are some other past virtual exhibitions also available here). And don’t forget that the British Library also has a separate blog on digitised medieval manuscripts. More generally the digitised manuscript collection includes 600 Greek manuscripts, 150 medieval and modern scientific manuscripts, 400 so-called Royal manuscripts, 120 contributions on botany in India between 1780 and 1860, music manuscripts, 11,000 works from Persia, as well as manuscripts from Thailand and Malaysia.

The Louvre has a visitor trails entitled Daily Life in Egypt, Osiris, and Funerary Art, Roman Egypt. Concerning the classical period they have trails Greek Sculpture and Alexander the Great. And going right back to the birth of civilisation, they have trails on The Great Goddess (fertility), and the Sumerian City-States.


The Online Egyptological Bibliography holds more than 100,000 references to Egyptological literature from 1822 to the present. It is a subscription site, but one that is absolutely vital for those working in the field. Another important subscription Website is Nestor, a bibliography of Aegean studies, however here the past issues of Nestor are free to download (they are just bibliographic lists and conference announcements). Useful but also frustrating in its “flatness” is the Website Egyptian Royal Tombs of the New Kingdom, but the diagrams of the layout of the tombs make it well worth a visit. 


Archaeology Resource has a “links” page with useful search engines, online libraries, dictionaries, journals and bibliographies. For example you have pointers to such resources as “Egyptian monuments”, the Giza Archives, the Egyptologists’ electronic forum, and the 1,700 books of the Internet Sacred Text Archive. The British Museum has a great site dedicated the Ancient Egypt and covering everything from everyday life to the Pyramids, mummification to writing. The BBC also has a Website dedicated to Egypt and designed more as a student resource. National Geographic has a Website dedicated to the the latest studies on the remains of Tutankhamun, and a separate Website on the “golden age” of the Pharaohs and yet another different Website on the Pyramids of Giza (you have to register, but it is free). There is a well developed and very informative Website dedicated to the tomb of King Padibastet, in the form of a virtual Egyptian museum. And if you are passionate about ancient Egypt you can also visit the Egyptian Galley in the Chicago Oriental Institute (and its projects including the photographic archive early expeditions to Egypt, Iran, Irak and Sudan), the “Treasures of Ancient Egypt”, the artifacts on display in the Louvre, “Exploring Ancient Egypt”, the Guardian’s Egypt, the LACMA collection of Egyptian artifacts, “the” Website on hieroglyphs, and some information on 12 of the 2,000-odd Egyptian deities.


The Theban Mapping Project is a long-running archaeological database on Thebes, including sections on the history of the Valley of the Kings, on mortuary beliefs and more generally on the development of the tombs. There are a couple of atlases, with the one of the Valley of the Kings being composed of more than 2,000 photographs. The section on resources will be valuable for all those readers interested in a in-depth view of the ancient Egypt.


If you want to submerge yourself in the history of Egypt try reading “Ancient Records of Egypt”, dating from 1906 and covering historical documents of the first 17 dynasties. The author, James Henry Breasted, also wrote “A History of Egypt”. More in depth resources on Egyptology includes the resources, news and gossip of the Fitzwilliam Museum, the Ancient Egyptian Virtual Temple (with its sections on topics such as trade, winemaking, temple gardens, etc.), the research library Aigyptos (and its follow-on with the subscription based Online Egyptological Bibliography), the detailed survey of the Giza plateau, and a visit to the step pyramid of Djoser. The Giza pyramids are extensively covered in this Website, including their dimensions and proportions.


A very specialised topic is covered by Papyri.info, which is dedicated to the study of ancient papyrological documents, e.g. manuscripts written on papyrus commonly used in the ancient civilisations of Egypt, Greece and Rome. Here is also a blog entry from the British Library concerning a papyrus puzzle. And there is also a site dedicated to Tismegistos or papyrological and epigraphical resources of Egypt and the Nile valley between roughly 800 BC and AD 800.

Classics at Oxford has a very extensive Web resources page listing resources, meta-indices, journals providing universal access (and subscription services), art, archaeology, and picture sites, e-texts, literary & cultural theory, linguistics, and papyrology & epigraphy.

Pomoerium looks to a subscription journal, but it has a section “classical links & databases” with a list of topic-specific search engines and databases, that in some way compliment the list of resources from Oxford. Another great resource is the Electronic Resources for Classicists, which also lists gateways, databases, projects, journals, bibliographies, image collections, etc. Michigan State University has a site dedicated to Classical Studies, including a long list of well described Web sites. They also have quite a variety of sections, including ancient medicine, ancient philosophy, atlases, blogs, literature collections, and even documentary films available in the library. This university has a massive list of research guides (from “researching artists” to writing in the medical sciences) based upon a standard template, some well populated, others almost empty, but it is worth a look.

Rassegna degli Strumenti Informatici per lo Studio dell’Antichià Classica is, as you might have guessed, an Italian site covering everything from gateway guides, through to museum exhibitions, but I’m not sure how well it is maintained (the links I checked-out worked). The Voice of the Shuttle has a long list of annotated links under Classical Studies (from University of California, Santa Barbara).   


The Loeb Classical Library appears to provide access to classical masterpieces, in both their original Greek or Latin, and translated into English. As an example I selected Aristotle and his “Art” of Rhetoric, and was able to access both the original Greek text, and the English translation. Philosophy Texts Online is a list of annotated text resources (dated 1998 and does not look well maintained, but it could still be useful to help the reader hunt out new resources). Gnomon Online is a bibliographic database for the “classics”. This may not look that interesting, but in my little visit I came across a pointer to a YouTube video on “Making Greek Vases” which was very enlightening. TOCS-IN (Tables of Contents of Journals of Interest to Classicists), is just that. 


The Ure Museum of Greek Archaeology is a Website of the museum in Reading, UK, that has a large collection of ancient Greek ceramics. You can browse by record and images, but I must admit that you must be passionate about Greek ceramics to really find this Website interesting.

The Classical Art Research Centre includes the worlds largest collection of images of ancient figure-decorated pottery. The pottery database can be searched by shape, technique, painter or potter, inscription, and subject (and that is the only the basic search). There is a section on gem research and other databases cover Etruscan terracottas, sculptors’ inscriptions, and an introduction to Greek pottery.


A good overview of ancient Greece can be found on the British Museum Website, covering everything from Greek geography, Athens and Sparta, and God and Goddesses. And the BBC also has an extensive Website with sections on the Olympic Games and democracy. The Greek Mythology Link is a collection of Greek myths based upon sources dated between 800 BC and 60 AD. Fordham University has a whole section of its Internet Ancient History Handbook dedicated to Greece. I was particularly impressed with the Website Ancient Greece, where University Press has included sections on everything from the arts, architecture, maps, mythology, great names in Greek history, the many wars fought by the Greeks, and contributions on Greek clothing, jewellery, theatre, etc. There is another Ancient Greece that is part of Kidipedia, but it looks to do a pretty good job covering all the essentials. The Ancient City of Athens is a photographic archive of archaeological remains in city. And there is yet another Ancient Greece with sections on archaeology, architecture, culture, history, etc. The University of Virginia has a site Antqua Medicina dedicated to medicine in ancient Greece, as is this Website from the US National Institutes of Health. You have “The Cultivation of Justice”, an online lecture series on the search for social justice (as far as I can see it uses the Odyssey and the basis). DEMOS is a publication on classical Athenian democracy. It appears as a series of articles on topics such as institutions, policing Athens, and democratic art, and it also includes “An Introduction to the Athenian Legal System”. And here we have one of the later discussions concerning the Antikythera Mechanism (a form of early calculator or computer). There is also the Digital Encyclopaedia of the Hellenic World with volumes on Asia Minor, the Black Sea and Constantinople.  

The Perseus Digital Library Project, under development since 1985, covers a variety of resources including the history, literature and culture of the Greco-Roman world. Perseus contains texts in Greek and translations. The major authors of the classical period are represented, as well as some later authors from the 5th C BC. Perseus also contains images of vases, sculptures and sculptural groups, coins, buildings, as well as colour maps of Greece taken from satellite images, annotated with place names. You can use their Art & Archaeology Artifact Browser to browse on themes such as buildings, coins and sculpture.

The Epigraphic Database Heidelberg contains Latin and bilingual (i.e. Latin-Greek) inscriptions of the Roman Empire, as does (I think) the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum. And there is the Eagle network is about ancient Greek and Latin epigraphy (e.g. inscriptions), and they plan to collect more than 1.5 million items about what most people call the Greco-Roman world. I’m not sure how far they have got, but my hopes are high. I think they must be linked to the Electronic Archive of Greek and Latin Epigraphy. Searchable Greek Inscriptions from what I can see hosts a vast collection of Greek texts. There is a blog on the specific topic of standards for networking ancient prosopographies, and a reference to a new project to have standards when trying to bring together references to the same or related people from ancient Greek and Latin texts. Elpenor is a bilingual anthology of all periods of Greek literature, from Homer to modern Greek poets, and this Website is dedicated to the Greek language and linguistics. As far as I can see the biggest Website on Latin inscriptions is the Epigraphik-Datenbank which claims to “have” more than 700,000 set of data for nearly 500,000 inscriptions from 3,500 publications, with more than 100,000 pictures.  


The House of Ptolemy is a poorly designed Website with links covering Ptolemaic Egypt, Greco-Roman Egypt, Byzantine Egypt, and a few more modern references. The Ptolemaic Dynasty is another Website dedicate to the dynasty founded after the death of Alexander in 323. 

 

There is also a research blog entitled Greek in Italy, which is interested in understanding the nature of language contact between ancient Greece and Italy (the different Italic peoples are often known as Sebellians who spoke Osco-Umbrian), e.g. the Website looks at both alphabet and linguistics. Under resources there is a list of other relevant blogs (notably on Pompeii and of course the impressive The Ancient World Online) and links to helpful Websites (such as Perseus, antiquity-à-la-carte, and ORBIS).

CLAROS is a search tool for the different collection in Oxford University touching on Greece and Rome, but it also searches across the Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae and relevant collections in Germany, France, Rome and Greece. As far as I can see there are more than 215,000 images in the archive. This resource was not working the last time I checked.

Peitho’s Web on classical rhetoric and persuasion looks at Sappho, Thucydides, Aristotle, Horace, etc., with translations.

The Classics Pages is an example of what a single dedicated individual can build. The Website claims to have more than a 1,000 Webpages on the Greeks and Romans (not sure about that claim), covering classical philosophy, art, mythology, archaeology, and life in general. “Athens” produced 105 “hits”. Another couple of useful personal Websites are those of John Paul Adams and John Porter, and their lists supporting their teaching commitments in Greek and Roman history and literature. These can be compared with an equally extensive Websites such as Ancient/Classical History with sections on ancient history, people & places, myths & legends, and the Trojan War, and the Classics Resources (last updated in 2012 but still very useful). As a complement you can check out blogographos, a public blog on Greek and Roman antiquity (but it looks as if it has not been maintained recently), the well maintained rogueclassicism blog, or the massive list of links housed on the Bibliotheca Classica Selecta. The Website Attalus claims to have more than 25,000 links to Greek and Latin authors, and covers the history of the Hellenistic world and the Roman republic between 233 to 26 BC. The Classics Technology Center is an online educational resource with everything from a Latin-to-English dictionary to a historical perspective on the film “Gladiator”. Cleopatra is an interesting collection of The Art Institute of Chicago spanning Egypt, Greece and Rome. Compitum is a French language Website on “recherches et actualités sur l’antiquité romaine et la latinité” with a great list of resources including ancient texts, bibliographies, thematic Websites, etc. The Ancient Greek Thesaurus provides a useful introduction to Greek history and mythology from the Neolithic period through to the Byzantine period. The Internet Classics Archive list 441 works of classical literature by 59 authors.


The Bibliotheca Augustana is an e-book library of texts - Latina, Graeca, Germanica, Anglica, Gallica, Italica, Hispanica, Polonica, Russica, Iiddica, Lusitana, and Bohemica, along with virtual museum of architecture, sculpture, and painting, and collection of music, and finally film collection. Bibliotheca Latina IntraText actually contains quite a collection of texts, but it is very difficult to understand what the sites does and what content is actually available. Bibliographiae Latinae Selectae is again another Website where the name described clearly what it is. Bibliolheca Classica Selecta is another bibliography (that also points to TOCS-IN). Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum is yet another bibliography with text collections, points to other sources (including dead-links), all as originals, with no translations unless otherwise specified.


On-line Survey of Audio-Visual Resources for Classics, is a compilation of 1,000’s of audio-visual items useful for teaching Greek and Roman archaeology, culture, history, art, etc. However most of the items look to be for purchase only.


The French Website “l’aventure des écritures” looks at the history of writing and the material used, from “l’argile” to the “numérique”. Poinikastas is all about early Greek writing, which looks to be a highly specialised topic. But if you like really specialised topics, try Vindolanda Tablets Online, which is about a series of writing tablets from the Roman fort at Vindolanda in northern England (you can of course use them when learning Latin and Classics).


The Ancient Theatre Archive is a virtual tour of Greek and Roman theatre architecture, including those in France, Greece, Italy, Turkey, Spain and Portugal, and Alexandria in Egypt. Just as an example I had a look at the Acinipo Roman theatre in Ronda le Vieja (about 20 km from the present-day Ronda) and the Baelo Roman theatre (located about 20 km outside the present-day Tarifa). The Website is also the home of an extensive glossary and a useful bibliography.


What more powerful symbol of ancient power than the coin. “Online Coins of the Roman Empire” aims to record every type of Roman coin from 31 BC to 491 AD, but for the moment they have more than 15,000 examples dating from 31 BC to 211 AD. There is a “browser”, but the “maps” interface is the most attractive, and for me (a non-specialist) the most useful. Roman Provincial Coinage Online is home to more than 13,000 coin types and nearl 50,000 specimens. You can also check out the incomplete but useful Coin Hoards of the Roman Empire (155 BC to 2 AD), and the impressively rich “Bearers of Meaning” collection of ancient and Byzantine coins. You also have the Handbook of Biblical Numismatics covering the period 13th C BC through to the end of the Crusades.

One of the Website mentioned in the “Coins of the Roman Empire” is the fantastic Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire. You can “visit” Europe and find out that London was originally called Londinium and Paris was called Lutetia. This “digital atlas” is part of the Pelagios project which is all about using ancient geodata (basically places) to support history, geography and the classics. Initially started for Greece and Rome it is now extended to medieval Christian, Islamic and Asian geography. So again the map is one of the main interfaces, but you can also search on place names, etc. The results are clearly “academic” and of little direct interest to me (shame), but having said that there were a number of recent “posts” that were interesting. For example, Pliny in his Naturalis Historia looked at the geography of Italy and the coast of the Mediterranean including Spain, Greece, etc. and these locations are now being mapped on to a modern day Europe. Another example involves the route taken to go from Bordeaux to Jerusalem, and back (using the so-called Intinerarium Burdigalense).

You can also use a Web-based GIS interface to a digital atlas, and a good example is Antiquity à-la-carte of the ancient world. It used information from the Pleiades project and the Ancient World Mapping Center to create a map featuring accurate historical, cultural and geographic data. The Pleiades project is a historical gazetteer that helps people use, create, share and map historical geographic information about the ancient world. For example Mare Adriaticum is well mapped with its islands, ports and shores. Another different mapping database is ORBIS, a geospatial network model of the Roman World.


Some years ago I came across Haverford College and its Website dedicated to geo-locating literature using Google Earth/Maps. They appeared to have a Homeric catalogue of ships, and three sets of important locations at differing moments in Greek history. Basically by selecting one of the hyperlinks takes you to a Google Earth community and a .kmz file. You needed to download the file, select it, and it opened Google Earth. You could then view the historically-contextualised locations, images, and short commentaries. Now (2016) this site has disappeared, but I’ve decided to leave a market here anyway. However Haverford College has some other resources that could be of interest, e.g. Cypriote Pottery, a guide to Classical & Near Eastern Archaeology, and the Bryn Mawr Classical Review, but no sign now of their geo-located literature (shame).


Bryn Maer College (a women’s liberal arts college near Philadelphia, and meaning “big hill” in Welsh) compiled in 2000 a collection of magic lantern” slides. The resources are now available on different aggregator sites in the US, but the original collection is also still accessible here. The focus is clearly on ancient monuments in Greece, Italy and to a lesser degree Turkey. In the same college they also have the Mellink collection of nearly 4,000 archaeological site photographs taken in the mid-20th C. It is difficult to understand the scope of the collection, but a search on “Delphi” produced 24 “hits” of photographs taken in the 1950’s. The interface leaves something to be desired, but the photographs are well documented and the actual image presentation is first-class (all the images have a creative commons license).


Ostia is a Website is dedicated to the harbour city of ancient Rome, with basically anything else that mentions the ancient harbour, e.g. visitor guides, archaeology, etc.


In the Illustrated History of the Roman Empire you can find sections covering everything from the early Republic to the army, and the interactive maps and timeline are also useful. And “From Jesus to Christ” is a companions Website to a TV series and paints a portrait of the world of the early Christians (a similar site also exists for the “Muslims” and the “Wonders of the African World”). The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago has very informative sections on Mesopotamia, Assyria, the Syro-Anatolia, the Megiddo, the Egyptians and the Persians.


The Roman Empire is a companion Website to a public broadcasting program, and it features a virtual library and a timeline. Forum Romanum has sections on Latin literature, Roman history (actually a transcript of a book first published in 1901), the private life of the Romans (another book first published in 1903), and antique surgical instruments (again another text first published in 1907). Here we have 316 Roman artifacts held in the British Museum, each with photographs and detailed descriptions. The Museum of London has a section on Roman London AD 50-140, and The Hunterian looks at Romans in Scotland. Nova Online looks at the “Roman Bath”, and more generally at the importance of water for Romans. De Imperatoribus Romanis, is an online encyclopedia of Roman rulers and their families. The Website includes an imperial battle index, atlases, and a virtual catalog of Roman coins. The BBC has two galleries dedicated to Roman mosaics and Hadrian’s Wall. Here we have a list of antique Roman ingredients and meals. Mapping History tries to provide interactive history around the concept of a map, and it has an interesting map of the Roman elite (14-68 AD), Roman expansion (509-31 BC) and census figures (500-75 BC). This Website deserves an in-depth review. LacusCurtius is a personal Website with a Gazetteer of the Roman world, 51 source texts, and dictionaries, histories and assorted documents about ancient Rome. The BBC also has a teaching aid dedicated to the Roman Empire.


Forum Romanum has sections on Latin literature, the private lives of Romans (perhaps the most interesting of the sections), and surgical instruments of the period, as well as an outline of Roman history. Antiqua Medicina looks at just that, from Homer to Vesalius. The BBC has a selection of special pages, e.g. Roman Doctors, Hadrian’s Wall, and Roman Mosaics. Here is a page on Slavery in Ancient Rome, and some Maps of the Roman Empire (also have a look at Mapping History), and the Real Life of Gladiator. And here we have a very complete discussion of Antique Roman Dishes (as in food).


Pompeian Households documents 30 houses and their content, consisting of 865 rooms and 16,000 artifacts (the official Website is Pompei Ercolano Stabia).


Who Was Who in Roman Times is a Website dedicated to people and events in Roman history, it does not look to have been maintained since 2012, and it is very messy, but there is a lot of information in it (you just have to spend time looking for it).


There is a WebRing dedicated to classical culture, e.g. Greek and Roman history, etc. And as you might imagine there are a multitude of related topics all having their own WebRing. 


The Roman Law Resources are just that, information on Roman law sources and literature, e.g. abbreviations, bibliographies, teaching material, blogs, etc.


Delving deep into the collaboration behind the Pelagios project you find some interesting, rich, and sometimes highly specialised, resources. There is Arachne that provides access (you need to register) to around 500,000 scans and 250,000 objects, and specifically mentions both the archives of the German Archaeological Institutes in Athens, Cairo and Istanbul, and also 2,000 prints from the 16th C to 19th C. And under “content” you can see some collections of sculptures, casts, antiquities, photographs, and paintings and drawings. As an example, the collection of paintings and drawings includes 151 items from the Winckelmann Museum in Stendal.


The Dead Sea Scrolls Online is an impressively complete site hosting all the information you need about the scrolls. There is also the Leon Levy Dead Sea Scrolls Digital Library which is a different Website hosting more than 10,000 high-quality images. The first Website is sponsored by the Israel Museum, and this second Website is sponsored by the Israel Antiquities Authority. Based upon a quick visit to both sites the second one looks more user-friendly.


For those people interested in the understanding better the Jewish communities of the Byzantine Empire, there is no better place to go than here, although this site also points to a different site on the same topic here mentioning Web-GIS (I think the second site is a product of the first). The aim is to collect published and unpublished information about Jewish communities between 650 and 1492.


Explore Byzantium looks at the economic, political and cultural power of Byzantium through the period from the 4th C AD through to the 15th C. The Website has a timeline, maps, image collections, etc, but it looks like it “stopped” in 2003. Still it is still there and useful.


There is a Website called Art and the Bible which has quite a collection of famous paintings inspired by Biblical events. If the Bible really is your passion, then you can also check out Biblical Studies Online. From Jesus to Christ looks at the life of Jesus, and the rise of Christianity.


The Cairo Genizah collection is a series of 4,000 fragments, equivalent to around 25,000 pages, featuring Bible, early Rabbinic literature, numerous liturgical fragments, and legal documents and letters.


Archaeologica is a news and information service on archaeology, with daily updates and weekly podcasts. During my visit it listed a number of news items from Reuter, Bionews, BBC, Live Science, etc., and the podcasts covered news about the Dead Sea Scrools, Roman gladiators, and the world’s oldest cheese. The podcasts are actually hosted on The Archaeology Channel which has quite a collection of video introductions and interviews about archaeology sites around the world. Archaeology is the Website of a paper-based magazine, but it has a good up-to-date news section. The Archaeology Data Service is a UK-based monument inventory and archive for archaeology (with more than 1 million records, e.g. Stonehenge clocked up more than 1,000 “hits”). The Athena Review host a good collection of interesting articles, and has a good news archive section (it is subscription based but some articles are free). Passionate about History is well worth a look, and it has a section entitled Roman Times.


Carare looked at 3D and virtual reality for archaeology and architecture heritage. On their Website they list a number of 3D case studies, for example the castle of Bouvignes in Belgium. In addition they also point to 21 3D “documents” on the Pompeii Fortuna Visiva Website. Whilst promising much I find that these technologies fail to deliver the compelling experience that we are lead to expect.


Money - Past, Present & Future looks at the history of money, the forms it can take, the politics of money, the economics of, and on the Internet, and (naturally) all the scandals about the world of finance (BCCI, Barings, Enron, Savings & Loans, WorldCom, Parmalat, .... need we say more).


If you are a fan of Aesop’s Fables then this site “Aesopica” is the one for you. You have the English, Latin and Greek versions, illustrations from all periods, .. in fact everything you will ever need to know. An if this has wet your appetite for Latin then check out the blog Bestiaria Latina. And if that is not enough for you then Akropolis offers current news stories written in ancient Greek prose, with some new words for “modern” things such as cars, electricity, etc.). Ephemeris does the same by publishing a “modern-day” newspaper in Latin, as does Nuntii Latini which also broadcasts weekly from Finland news in Latin.


Concerning other ancient cultures, here are some additional references:

East Asian History Sourcebook

Chinese History, Timelines, Maps, and Chronology of Dynasties and Emperors

Chinese History Virtual Library

Chinese History

History of China


Ancient India by the British Museum

The Ancient Indus Valley Civilisation, 3500-1700 BC (re-launched in 2015)

Architecture of India, surprisingly extensive Website


European History Phoenician, Greek, Roman, and more ...


The resources section of Bibliografía Mesoamericana might be a useful starting point for learning about México, Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and El Salvador

Ancient Mesoamerican Civilisations

Indian Art of the Americas


And there is the Website Ancient Worlds with sections on Rome, Hellas, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Celtia, Germania, the Orient, Americas, and the New Worlds.